Mine de bauxite

La bauxite est un minerai servant à la fabrication de l'aluminium. C'est une roche latéritique en général de couleur rouge, à forte de teneur en oxyde fer et en alumine. Son nom tire son orignine des Baux de Provence ou elle fut découverte par Pierre Berthier, minéralogiste, en 1821.

Les principales mines de bauxite se situent hors de l'europe, principalement en Amérique Centrale (Jamaïque, Guyane, Surinam...) , en Afrique (pourtour du Golfe de Guinée) et en Asie et Océanie (Indonésie, Inde, Australie...).

Des sites de fabrication d'aluminium existent en France. Nous en connaissons tous au moins un, celui de Tarascon. Mais d'autres existent. Pour les plus connus, Gardanne, Saint Jean de Maurienne, Dunkerque...


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La mine de Péreille est située à proximité du hameau de Coumescure. Au début du XXième siècle, elle constituait avec l'agriculture, la principale activité économique du secteur. Dans les années 60 on y extrayait 1000 tonnes de minerai par an pour environ 250 tonnes d'aluminium produites.

Le maire de Péreille fut le directeur de la mine avant que celle-ci ne soit cédée à Péchiney.


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De la bauxite à l'aluminium

La bauxite, minerai qui contient principalement de l'alumine est d'abord pulvérisée puis mélangée dans des autoclaves à une solution de soude qui permet de dissoudre     l'alumine, tandis que les impuretés demeurées à l'état solide sont éliminées par lavage et filtration. On peut se demander où?

La solution restante est refroidie et son pH est diminué. On constate alors l'apparition d'un précipité d'alumine tri-hydratée.

Ce précipité est porté à environ 1000°C dans des fours. Il reste alors de l'alumine pure, sous forme de poudre blanche.


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Schéma tiré du site "histalu.org"


Pour en savoir plus sur l'aluminium.




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